Faraz Ahmad*, Shafiul Haque*, Vishal Chavda and Ghulam Md Ashraf*
The current meta-analysis of the cohort review was designed to elucidate the progress made in neuroproteomics of the synaptosome. The association of the comprehensive synaptic proteome and its link to physiological or pathological settings is rapidly mounting. Chemical synapses in the brain are focal hot spots for interneuronal signaling, signal transduction, and plasticity. Structurally, synapses comprise axon termini or the presynapse (vesicles filled with neurotransmitters that function as molecular signals), synaptic clefts (extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules), and post-synaptic density or PSD (with receptors for neurotransmitters that rely upon the chemical signaling). The pre- and post-synaptic clefts are responsible for mediating and regulating neurotransmitter release Their receptor binding and perception rely on chemical signals. Moreover, short- and long-term structural and functional alterations that are necessary for the optimal higher-order brain functions are also mainly dependent on the protein dynamics at the synapses. Not surprisingly, disruptions in synaptic physiology are considered as the major pathogenic mechanisms underlying the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. This review briefly discusses the subcellular fractionation protocols and the related biochemical approaches for the isolation of synaptic compartments. Besides, it discusses the progress made in understanding the pathological alterations in the synaptic proteome in neurodegenerative disorders, particularly focussing on Alzheimer's disease dementia.
Alzheimer's disease, neurodegenerative disorders, proteomics, synapse, synaptosome
Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin - 9016, Research and Scientific Studies Unit, College of Nursing & Allied Health Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan - 45142, Department of Pharmacology, Nirma University, Ahmadabad, Gujarat – 382481, Pre-Clinical Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah