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Mechanisms of Plant Defense Under Pathogen Stress: A Review

Author(s):

Monika Sood, Dhriti Kapoor, Vipul Kumar, Namarta Kalia, Renu Bhardwaj, Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu and Anket Sharma*   Pages 1 - 20 ( 20 )

Abstract:


Being sessile organisms, plants are persistently confronted by a diverse array of biotic agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, herbivores and nematodes. So, understanding the mechanism of host-pathogen interactions is essential for improving plant resistance to these against biotic factors. In this review, we have discussed various means and mechanisms by which pathogens influence the host plant defense. A virulent pathogen can reduce the growth and development of a plant, which eventually lowers its yield by multiple processes, like enhancement in cell death, as well as modification of plant architecture. This review also explains the various strategies used by plants to control pathogen caused diseases. These mainly include either resistance or tolerance by activating cell signaling pathways, which further regulate the synthesis and accumulation of several cellular products, such as phytohormones, enzymes, proteins and secondary metabolites. To minimize the influence of infection on their vigor, plants also exhibit immunity regardless of the heights of pathogen multiplication. The current review provides an important insight into the mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction, which is very significant for efficient disease management.

Keywords:

Biotic stress, pathogenesis, stress response, plant immune system, defense metabolites.

Affiliation:

School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Delhi-Jalandhar Highway. Phagwara 144411, Punjab, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Delhi-Jalandhar Highway. Phagwara 144411, Punjab, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Delhi-Jalandhar Highway Phagwara 144411, Punjab, Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington D.C, Plant Stress Physiology Lab, Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005, Centre of Applied Biology in Environmental Science, Kurukshetra University, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A and F University, Hangzhou, 311300



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