Nhu Q. Vu, Kellen DeLaney and Lingjun Li* Pages 158 - 169 ( 12 )
Neuropeptides are an important class of endogenous peptides in the nervous system that regulate physiological functions such as feeding, glucose homeostasis, pain, memory, reproduction, and many others. In order to understand the functional role of neuropeptides in diseases or disorders, studies investigating their dysregulation in terms of changes in abundance and localization must be carried out. As multiple neuropeptides are believed to play a functional role in each physiological process, techniques capable of global profiling multiple neuropeptides simultaneously are desired. Mass spectrometry is well-suited for this goal due to its ability to perform untargeted measurements without prior comprehensive knowledge of the analytes of interest. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is particularly useful because it has the capability to image a large variety of peptides in a single experiment without labeling. Like all analytical techniques, careful sample preparation is critical to successful MSI analysis. The first half of this review focuses on recent developments in MSI sample preparation and instrumentation for analyzing neuropeptides and other biomolecules in which the sample preparation technique may be directly applicable for neuropeptide analysis. The benefit offered by incorporating these techniques is shown as improvement in a number of observable neuropeptides, enhanced signal to noise, increased spatial resolution, or a combination of these aspects. The second half of this review focuses on recent biological discoveries about neuropeptides resulting from these improvements in MSI analysis. The recent progress in neuropeptide detection and analysis methods, including the incorporation of various tissue washes, matrices, instruments, ionization sources, and computation approaches combined with the advancements in understanding neuropeptide function in a variety of model organisms, indicates the potential for the utilization of MSI analysis of neuropeptides in clinical settings.
Mass spectrometry imaging, neuropeptide, peptide, peptidomics, MALDI, LESA, MSI.
Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706