Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Natural Products as Anti-Cancerous Therapeutic Molecules Targeted towards Topoisomerases

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 11 ]

Author(s):

Swati Singh, Veda P. Pandey, Kusum Yadav, Anurag Yadav and U. N. Dwivedi*   Pages 1103 - 1142 ( 40 )

Abstract:


Topoisomerases are reported to resolve the topological problems of DNA during several cellular processes, such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and chromatin remodeling. Two types of topoisomerases (Topo I and II) accomplish their designated tasks by introducing single- or double-strand breaks within the duplex DNA molecules, and thus maintain the proper structural conditions of DNA to release the topological torsions, which is generated by unwinding of DNA to access coded information, in the course of replication, transcription, and other processes. Both the topoisomerases have been looked at as crucial targets against various types of cancers such as lung, melanoma, breast, and prostate cancers. Conceptually, targeting topoisomerases will disrupt both DNA replication and transcription, thereby leading to inhibition of cell division and consequently stopping the growth of actively dividing cancerous cells. Since the discovery of camptothecin (an alkaloid) as an inhibitor of Topo I in 1958, a number of derivatives of camptothecin were developed as potent inhibitors of Topo I. Two such derivatives of camptothecin, namely, topotecan and irinotecan, have been commonly used as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against Topo I. Similarly, the first Topo II inhibitor, namely, etoposide, an analogue of podophyllotoxin, was developed in 1966 and got FDA approval as an anti-cancer drug in 1983. Subsequently, several other inhibitors of Topo II, such as doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and teniposide, were developed. These drugs have been reported to cause accumulation of cytotoxic non-reversible DNA double-strand breaks (cleavable complex). Thus, the present review describes the anticancer potential of plant-derived secondary metabolites belonging to alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids directed against topoisomerases. Furthermore, in view of the recent advances made in the field of computer-aided drug design, the present review also discusses the use of computational approaches such as ADMET, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and QSAR to assess and predict the safety, efficacy, potency and identification of these potent anti-cancerous therapeutic molecules.

Keywords:

Topoisomerase, topos inhibitors, cancer, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, pharmacophore, QSAR, virtual screening.

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry & Institute for Development of Advanced Computing, ONGC Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P., Department of Biochemistry & Institute for Development of Advanced Computing, ONGC Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P., Department of Biochemistry & Institute for Development of Advanced Computing, ONGC Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P., Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Sardar Krushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Banaskantha, Gujarat, Department of Biochemistry & Institute for Development of Advanced Computing, ONGC Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P.

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article