Daria Augustyniak, Judyta Nowak and Fionnuala T. Lundy Pages 723 - 738 ( 16 )
As global resistance to conventional antibiotics rises we need to develop new strategies to develop future novel therapeutics. In our quest to design novel anti-infectives and antimicrobials it is of interest to investigate host-pathogen interactions and learn from the complexity of host defense strategies that have evolved over millennia. A myriad of host defense molecules are now known to play a role in protection against human infection. However, the interaction between host and pathogen is recognized to be a multifaceted one, involving countless host proteins, including several families of peptides. The regulation of infection and inflammation by multiple peptide families may represent an evolutionary failsafe in terms of functional degeneracy and emphasizes the significance of host defense in survival. One such family is the neuropeptides (NPs), which are conventionally defined as peptide neurotransmitters but have recently been shown to be pleiotropic molecules that are integral components of the nervous and immune systems. In this review we address the antimicrobial and anti-infective effects of NPs both in vitro and in vivo and discuss their potential therapeutic usefulness in overcoming infectious diseases. With improved understanding of the efficacy of NPs, these molecules could become an important part of our arsenal of weapons in the treatment of infection and inflammation. It is envisaged that targeted therapy approaches that selectively exploit the anti-infective, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of NPs could become useful adjuncts to our current therapeutic modalities.
Neuropeptides, anti-infective action, antimicrobial action, immunomodulation, therapeutic potential, Antimicrobial Activities, DIRECT ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, Strains Sensitivities, Antimicrobial Assays
Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw, Poland.