R. E. Marchant, I. Kang, P. S. Sit, Y. Zhou, B. A. Todd, S. J. Eppell and I. Lee Pages 249 - 274 ( 26 )
Hemostasis and thrombosis are highly complex and coordinated interfacial responses to vascular injury. In recent years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to be a very useful approach for studying hemostatic processes under near physiologic conditions. In this report, we review recent progress in the use of AFM for studying hemostatic processes, including molecular level visualization of plasma proteins, protein aggregation and multimer assembly, and structural and morphological details of vascular cells under aqueous conditions. AFM offers opportunities for visualizing surface-dependent molecular and cellular interactions in three dimensions on a nanoscale and for sensitive, picoNewton level, measurements of intermolecular forces. AFM has been used to obtain molecular and sub-molecular, resolution of many biological molecules and assemblies, including coagulation proteins and cell surfaces. Surface-dependent molecular processes including protein adsorption, conformational changes, and subsequent interactions with cellular components have been described. This review outlines the basic principles and utility of AFM for imaging and force measurements, and offers objective perspectives on both the advantages and disadvantages. We focus primarily on molecular level events related to hemostasis and thrombosis, particularly coagulation proteins, and blood platelets, but also explore the use of AFM in force measurements and surface property mapping.
hemostasis, afm and hemostasis
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wickenden Building, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA