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Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: focus on NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes

Author(s):

Eliana Cristina de Brito Toscano*, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Beatriz Noele Azevedo Lopes, Claudia Kimie Suemoto and Antonio Lucio Teixeira  

Abstract:


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia worldwide. The definitive diagnosis of AD is clinicopathological and based on the identification of cerebral deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, the link between amyloid cascade and depositions of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) is still missing. In this scenario, inflammasomes might play a relevant role. Experimental models of AD have suggested that Aβ accumulation induces, through microglia, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This activation contributes to the dissemination of Aβ and p-tau, as well as to hyperphosphorylation of tau. Also in experimental models, NLPR1 promoted neuronal pyroptosis. There are neither comprehensive neuropathologic characterization, nor clinicopathologic studies evaluating the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in subjects with AD.

Objective: The current mini-review aims to summarize recent and promising findings on the role of NLRP1 and NLRP3 signaling in the pathophysiology of AD. We also sought to highlight the knowledge gap in patients with AD, mainly the lack of clinicopathologic studies on the interaction among inflammasomes, Aβ/tau pathology, and cognitive decline.

Keywords:

amyloid beta, inflammasome, inflammation, neuroimmunity, pyroptosis, tau protein

Affiliation:

Laboratório de Patologia Celular e Molecular, Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG, Laboratório de Patologia Celular e Molecular, Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG, Departamento de Geriatria, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Departamento de Geriatria, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Santa Casa BH, Belo Horizonte



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