Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


RNA Sensors as a Mechanism of Innate Immune Evasion among SARSCoV2, HIV and Nipah Viruses

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Dalia Cicily Kattiparambil Dixon, Chameli Ratan, Bhagyalakshmi Nair, Sabitha Mangalath, Rachy Abraham* and Lekshmi. R. Nath*   Pages 273 - 289 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Innate immunity is the first line of defence elicited by the host immune system to fight against invading pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. From this elementary immune response, the more complex antigen-specific adaptive responses are recruited to provide a long-lasting memory against the pathogens. Innate immunity gets activated when the host cell utilizes a diverse set of receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to recognize the viruses that have penetrated the host and responds with cellular processes like complement system, phagocytosis, cytokine release and inflammation and destruction of NK cells. Viral RNA or DNA or viral intermediate products are recognized by receptors like toll-like receptors(TLRs), nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) thereby, inducing type I interferon response (IFN) and other proinflammatory cytokines in infected cells or other immune cells. But certain viruses can evade the host innate immune response to replicate efficiently, triggering the spread of the viral infection. The present review describes the similarity in the mechanism chosen by viruses from different families -HIV, SARSCoV- 2 and Nipah viruses to evade the innate immune response and how efficiently they establish the infection in the host. The review also addresses the stages of developments of various vaccines against these viral diseases and the challenges encountered by the researchers during vaccine development.

Keywords:

Innate immunity, HIV, SARS-CoV-2 virus, Nipah virus, RNA sensors, NOD-like receptors.

Affiliation:

Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682041, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682041, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682041, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682041, W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 , Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682041



Read Full-Text article