Mohd Saeed*, Mohd Adnan Kausar, Rajeev Singh, Arif Jamal Siddiqui and Asma Akhter Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )
Glycation refers to the covalent binding of sugar molecules to macromolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids in a non-enzymatic reaction, resulting in the formation of irreversibly bound products known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are synthesized in high amounts both in pathological conditions, such as diabetes and under physiological conditions resulting in aging. The body’s anti-glycation defense mechanisms play a critical role in removing glycated products. However, if this defense system fails, AGEs start accumulating, which results in pathological conditions. Studies have shown that increased accumulation of AGEs acts as key mediators in multiple diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, arthritis, cancer, atherosclerosis, decreased skin elasticity, male erectile dysfunction, pulmonary fibrosis, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease. Further, glycation of nucleotides, proteins, and phospholipids by α-oxoaldehyde metabolites, such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), cause potential damage to the genome, proteome, and lipidome. Glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1) acts as a part of the anti-glycation defense system by carrying out detoxification of GO and MGO. It has been demonstrated that GLO-1 protects dicarbonyl modifications of the proteome and lipidome, thereby impeding the cell signaling and affecting age-related diseases. Its relationship with detoxification and antiglycation defense is well established. Glycation of proteins by MGO and GO results in protein misfolding, thereby affecting their structure and function. These findings provide the evidence for the rationale that the functional modulation of GLO pathway could be used as a potential therapeutic target. In the present review, we summarize the newly emerged literature on GLO pathway including enzymes regulating the process. In addition, we describe small bioactive molecules with the potential to modulate the GLO pathway, thereby providing a basis for the development of new treatment strategies against age-related complications.
GLO, MGO, GO, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), metabolic pathway
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Hail, Hail, Department of Environmental Studies, Sataywati College, Delhi University, Delhi, Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Higuchi Biosciences Center, University of Kansas, KS 66045