Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

D-Amino Acids in Peptides from Animals, Including Human: Occurrence, Structure, Bioactivity and Pharmacology

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 6 ]


Elsie C. Jimenez*   Pages 622 - 637 ( 16 )


All life forms typically possess homochirality, with rare exceptions. In the case of peptides and proteins, only L-amino acids are known to be encoded by genes. Nevertheless, D-amino acids have been identified in a variety of peptides, synthesized by animal cells. They include neuroexcitatory and neuroprotective peptides, cardioexcitatory peptides, hyperglycemic hormones, opioid peptides, antimicrobial peptides, natriuretic and defensin-like peptides, and fibrinopeptides. This article is a review of their occurrence, structure and bioactivity. It further explores the pharmacology and potential medical applications of some of the peptides.


D-amino acid, achatin, conotoxin, agatoxin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, dermorphin and deltorphin, natriuretic and defensin-like peptides, fibrinopeptide.


Department of Physical Sciences, College of Science, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City 2600

Graphical Abstract:

Read Full-Text article