Mattia Santoni, Roberta Zampieri and Linda Avesani*
In the rapidly evolving field of nanotechnology, plant virus nanoparticles (pVNPs) are emerging as powerful tools in diverse applications ranging from biomedicine to materials science. The proteinaceous structure of plant viruses allows the capsid structure to be modified by genetic engineering and/or chemical conjugation with nanoscale precision. This means that pVNPs can be engineered to display peptides and proteins on their external surface, including immunodominant peptides derived from pathogens allowing pVNPs to be used for active immunization. In this context, pVNPs are safer than VNPs derived from mammalian viruses because there is no risk of infection or reversion to pathogenicity. Furthermore, pVNPs can be produced rapidly and inexpensively in natural host plants or heterologous production platforms. In this review, we discuss the use of pVNPs for the delivery of peptide antigens to the host immune in pre-clinical studies with the final aim of promoting systemic immunity against the corresponding pathogens. Furthermore, we described the versatility of plant viruses, with innate immunostimulatory properties, in providing a huge natural resource of carriers that can be used to develop the next generation of sustainable vaccines.
Molecular farming, CVP, eVLP, VLP, vaccine, peptide production
Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona. Strada Le Grazie, 15. 37134 Verona , Diamante srl. Strada Le Grazie, 15. 37134 Verona , Diamante srl. Strada Le Grazie, 15. 37134 Verona