Alexander P. Kolychev*, Maxim A. Terpilovskii and Vladimir N. Uversky Pages 22 - 35 ( 14 )
Insulin internalization and processing of the Insulin Receptor Complex (IRC) inside the cell are important components of the intracellular Mechanism of Insulin Action (MIA). They define the continuation of intracellular signaling of IRC and allow utilization of the parts of the complex after ligand dissociation. Traditionally, changes in the insulin regulatory system associated with the vertebrate phylogenesis have been evaluated by changes of its two elements: the hormone and its receptor. A hormone-competent cell was considered as an evolutionarily completed element of insulin regulatory system. However, previous studies of the isolated hepatocytes of four classes of vertebrates (lamprey, frog, chicken, and rat) revealed significant differences in the state of internalization of 125I-insulin and intracellular IRC processing. Radical differences were noted in the regulation of 125I-insulin internalization and the intracellular fate of the IRC. Here, cytosolic efficient insulin degradation and a complete lack of 125I-insulin exocytosis were observed in the cyclostome cells, whereas in amphibians the hormone underwent lysosomal degradation and showed low levels of exocytosis, while birds and mammals were characterized by high volumes of the excreted 125Iinsulin containing proteolytic 125I-insulin fragments. Despite the established recognition of the importance of the temperature factor, a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the temperature effects on MIA is still missing. This poorly studied problem of the MIA temperature dependence can be behind the differences in the effect of temperature on the intracellular action of insulin and IGF-I. In fact, at different phylogenetic stages, successive changes were reported for the temperature dependence of the 125Iinsulin internalization and exocytosis. The following regularities were reported for the effect of temperature on the 125I-insulin internalization in isolated hepatocytes of different origin: complete lack of receptibility of the process to temperature in lampreys, receptibility of the process in a narrow range of low temperatures (0-5°C) in amphibians, and flexible regulation of 125I-insulin internalization in a wide temperature range (6- 37°C) in the cells from endothermic organisms. Reported data make it possible to observe three stages in the alteration of temperature regulation of 125I-insulin internalization (in cells of cyclostomes, amphibians, and endothermic organisms) and two stages of temperature regulation of 125I-insulin exocytosis in cells of amphibians, birds, and mammals. The data presented in this study reflect the specificity of the developmental reorganization of the intracellular MIA regulation and hormone utilization, and emphasize the central role of temperature in selective MIA formation during vertebrate phylogenesis.
Insulin, internalization, endocytosis, exocytosis, degradation, insulin-receptor complex, phylogenesis, temperature, poikilothermic, endodermic, receptibility.
Laboratory of the Comparative Biochemistry of Enzymes, Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Laboratory of the Comparative Biochemistry of Enzymes, Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Department of Molecular Medicine and Byrd Alzheimer's Research Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612