Jean-Etienne RL Morlighem and Gandhi Radis-Baptista* Pages 1 - 22 ( 22 )
Since the beginning of written history, diverse texts have reported the use of enzymatic preparations in food processing and have described the medicinal properties of crude and fractionated venoms to treat various diseases and injuries. With the biochemical characterization of enzymes from distinct sources and bioactive polypeptides from animal venoms, the last sixty years have testified the advent of industrial enzymology and protein therapeutics, which are currently applicable in a wide variety of industrial processes, household products, and pharmaceuticals. Bioprospecting of novel biocatalysts and bioactive peptides is propelled by their unsurpassed properties that are applicable for current and future green industrial processes, biotechnology, and biomedicine. The demand for both novel enzymes with desired characteristics and novel peptides that lead to drug development, has experienced a steady increase in response to the expanding global market for industrial enzymes and peptidebased drugs. Moreover, although largely unexplored, oceans and marine realms, with their unique ecosystems inhabited by a large variety of species, including a considerable number of venomous animals, are recognized as untapped reservoirs of molecules and macromolecules (enzymes and bioactive venom-derived peptides) that can potentially be converted into highly valuable biopharmaceutical products. In this review, we have focused on enzymes and animal venom (poly)peptides that are presently in biotechnological use, and considering the state of prospection of marine resources, on the discovery of useful industrial biocatalysts and drug leads with novel structures exhibiting selectivity and improved performance.
enzyme, peptide, venom, peptide toxin, bioprospection, screening, industrial, application, therapeutic, drug, marine.
Federal University of Ceara - Institute for Marine Sciences, Fortaleza, CE, Institute for Marine Sciences, Federal university of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE