Aruna Rani, Seema Patel and Arun Goyal* Pages 22 - 33 ( 12 )
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) are the chief natural polysaccharides which reside in biological tissues mainly in extracellular matrix. These CS along with adhesion molecules and growth factors are involved in central nervous system (CNS) development, cell progression and pathogenesis. The chondroitin lyases are the enzyme that degrade and alter the CS chains and hence modify various signalling pathways involving CS chains. These CS lyases are substrate specific, can precisely manipulate the CS polysaccharides and have various biotechnological, medical and therapeutic applications. These enzymes can be used to produce the unsaturated oligosaccharides, which have immune-modulatory, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the major breakthrough of the chondroitin sulfate degrading enzymes, their structures and functioning mechanism. This also provides comprehensive information regarding production, purification, characterization of CS lyases and their major applications, both established as well as emerging ones such as neural development.
Proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin lyase, β-elimination, (α/α)5 toroid topology, cell invasion, differentiation.
Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Centre, San Diego State University, 92182, San Diego, CA, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam