Raushan K. Singh, Jung-Kul Lee*, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Ranjitha Singh, Jinglin Li, Sang-Yong Kim and Vipin C. Kalia Pages 5 - 15 ( 11 )
Proteins are one of the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems. Proteins have evolved to function under physiological conditions and, therefore, are not usually tolerant of harsh experimental and environmental conditions. The growing use of proteins in industrial processes as a greener alternative to chemical catalysts often demands constant innovation to improve their performance. Protein engineering aims to design new proteins or modify the sequence of a protein to create proteins with new or desirable functions. With the emergence of structural and functional genomics, protein engineering has been invigorated in the post-genomic era. The three-dimensional structures of proteins with known functions facilitate protein engineering approaches to design variants with desired properties. There are three major approaches of protein engineering research, namely, directed evolution, rational design, and de novo design. Rational design is an effective method of protein engineering when the threedimensional structure and mechanism of the protein is well known. In contrast, directed evolution does not require extensive information and a three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. Instead, it involves random mutagenesis and selection to screen enzymes with desired properties. De novo design uses computational protein design algorithms to tailor synthetic proteins by using the three-dimensional structures of natural proteins and their folding rules. The present review highlights and summarizes recent protein engineering approaches, and their challenges and limitations in the post-genomic era.
De novo design, directed evolution, genomics, protein engineering, random mutagenesis, rational design.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, Shin-Ansan University, Ansan 15435, Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi-110007