Julia P. Vainonen, Alexey Shapiguzov, Aleksia Vaattovaara and Jaakko Kangasjärvi Pages 713 - 723 ( 11 )
Poly(ADP-ribos)ylation, originally described as a mechanism of DNA break repair, is now considered as part of a complex regulatory system involved in dynamic reorganization of chromatin structure, transcriptional control of gene expression and regulation of metabolism. In plants poly(ADPribos) ylation has received surprisingly little attention. It has been implicated in abiotic and biotic stress responses, cell cycle control and development; however, the molecular mechanisms and proteins involved are largely unknown. In this review we summarize current knowledge on plant PARP, PARG and PARP-like domain containing proteins and discuss their possible roles in plant development, immune responses, programmed cell death and stress responses in general. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis contains three genes encoding PARP proteins, two of which have been shown to be active PARPs, and two genes encoding PARG proteins, one of which was shown to possess enzymatic activity. In addition, SROs (Similar to RCD One) represent a plant specific family of proteins containing a PARP-like domain. Although bioinformatics and biochemical data suggest that the PARP-like domain in SRO proteins does not have PARP activity, these proteins play a significant role in stress response as revealed by mutant analyses. SRO proteins interact with transcription factors involved in various stress and developmental responses and are suggested to serve as hubs in many signaling pathways. Altogether current data imply that poly(ADP-ribos)ylation plays significant regulatory role in many aspects of plant biology.
poly(ADP-ribos)ylation, PARP, PARG, SRO, RCD1, Arabidopsis thaliana, transcriptional regulation.
Division of Plant Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, POB 65 (Viikinkaari 1), FI-00014 Helsinki Finland.