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An Overview of Chromatin-Regulating Proteins in Cells

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Pingyu Zhang, Keila Torres, Xiuping Liu, Chang-gong Liu and Raphael E. Pollock   Pages 401 - 410 ( 10 )

Abstract:


In eukaryotic cells, gene expressions on chromosome DNA are orchestrated by a dynamic chromosome structure state that is largely controlled by chromatin-regulating proteins, which regulate chromatin structures, release DNA from the nucleosome, and activate or suppress gene expression by modifying nucleosome histones or mobilizing DNA-histone structure. The two classes of chromatinregulating proteins are 1) enzymes that modify histones through methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, adenosine diphosphate–ribosylation, glycosylation, sumoylation, or ubiquitylation and 2) enzymes that remodel DNA-histone structure with energy from ATP hydrolysis. Chromatin-regulating proteins, which modulate DNA-histone interaction, change chromatin conformation, and increase or decrease the binding of functional DNA-regulating protein complexes, have major functions in nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA replication, repair, and recombination. This review provides a general overview of chromatin-regulating proteins, including their classification, molecular functions, and interactions with the nucleosome in eukaryotic cells.

Keywords:

Chromosome, histone, histone modification, chromatin-regulating protein, gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA recombination.

Affiliation:

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Graphical Abstract:



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