Ralf-Peter Jansen and Dierk Niessing Pages 284 - 293 ( 10 )
At all steps from transcription to translation, RNA-binding proteins play important roles in determining mRNA function. Initially it was believed that for the vast majority of transcripts the role of RNA-binding proteins is limited to general functions such as splicing and translation. However, work from recent years showed that members of this class of proteins also recognize several mRNAs via cis-acting elements for their incorporation into large motor-containing particles. These particles are transported to distant subcellular sites, where they become subsequently translated. This process, called mRNA localization, occurs along microtubules or actin filaments, and involves kinesins, dyneins, as well as myosins. Although mRNA localization has been detected in a large number of organisms from fungi to humans, the underlying molecular machineries are not well understood. In this review we will outline general principles of mRNA localization and highlight three examples, for which a comparably large body of information is available. The first example is She2p/She3p-dependent localization of ASH1 mRNA in budding yeast. It is particularly well suited to highlight the interdependence between different steps of mRNA localization. The second example is Staufen-dependent localization of oskar mRNA in the Drosophila embryo, for which the importance of nuclear events for cytoplasmic localization and translational control has been clearly demonstrated. The third example summarizes Egalitarian/Bicaudal D-dependent mRNA transport events in the oocyte and embryo of Drosophila. We will highlight general themes and differences, point to similarities in other model systems, and raise open questions that might be answered in the coming years.
ASH1 mRNA, cytoskeleton, K10 mRNA, motor proteins, mRNA localization, oskar mRNA, RNA-binding proteins, translational control, posttranscriptional, mRNA.
Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.